An appreciation of Ann Hopkins, a glass ceiling pioneer

promotion discrimination; glass ceiling discrimination; sexism; employment discrimination

Ann Hopkins recently passed away, nearly 30 years after her seminal Supreme Court case helped to shatter the glass ceiling at Price Waterhouse. Hopkins played a huge role in shaping how the courts, indeed the country, viewed women in the workplace, especially in terms of receiving promotions to high-level positions. And her case, Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989), has been cited nearly 6,000 times in court opinions around the country.

By all accounts, Hopkins excelled at her job with Price Waterhouse and had a lucrative book of business. Yet the company denied her partnership bid twice, and of the 622 partners at the time, only 7 were women. The reasons given by Price Waterhouse for rejecting Hopkins included complaints from co-workers that she was foul-mouthed, aggressive, and demanding. One partner said that Hopkins needed to go to “charm school,” and she was encouraged to “walk more femininely, talk more femininely, dress more femininely, wear make-up, have her hair styled, and wear jewelry.” Basically, the company wanted Hopkins to behave in a more stereotypically-feminine manner and because she did not do so, it refused to make her a partner. Hopkins then resigned from the company and sued it for discrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.

The Supreme Court’s decision in her case is significant for several reasons. Most notably, the Court recognized that discrimination based on sex stereotyping can be unlawful under Title VII. That is, a company can’t refuse to promote an individual simply because that person does not conform with traditional/stereotypical notions of how a woman should act/appear. More recently, courts around the country have applied this gender-stereotyping rationale to find that companies also may not discriminate on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation.

Glass ceiling discrimination remains a stubborn obstacle across corporate America. But progress continues to be made in diversifying executive positions and Ann Hopkins deserves our profound appreciation for her role in making this happen.

Hiring an experienced employment discrimination lawyer

Hiring a proven and effective advocate is critical to obtaining the maximum recovery in an employment discrimination case.  Eric Bachman, Chair of the Firm’s Discrimination Practice, has substantial experience litigating precedent-setting individual and class action discrimination cases.   His wins include a $100 million settlement in a disparate impact Title VII class action and a $16 million class action settlement against a major grocery chain.  Having served as Special Litigation Counsel in the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice and as lead or co-counsel in numerous jury trials, Bachman is trial-tested and ready to fight for you to obtain the relief that you deserve.

Bachman is a contributor at Forbes.com and writes frequently on topics related to promotion discrimination, harassment, and other employment discrimination issues at the Glass Ceiling Discrimination Blog.

U.S. News and Best Lawyers® have named Zuckerman Law a Tier 1 firm in Litigation – Labor and Employment in the Washington DC metropolitan area.  Contact us today to find out how we can help you.  To schedule a preliminary consultation, click here or call us at (202) 769-1681 or (202) 262-8959.

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